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The Early Development of Morphology and Patterns of the Face in the Human Embryo
In 1953, at the grand age of 92, Ferdinand Hochstetter submitted his famous collection of photographs of human embryos entitled: "Uber die Entwicklung der Formverhaltnisse des menschlichen Antlitzes." Together with others papers, this contribution was published in 1955, a year after Hochstetter's death. In unbroken combativeness, Hochstetter discussed his results with regard to those of earlier embryologists and to those of his own lifetime. Thus, in an obituary, Elze (1956) reported about one of Hochstetter's letters from the year of his death (1954): "nur einige blodsinnige Behauptungen, die Fischel in seiner Ent wicklung des Menschen verzapft hat, mochte ich vielleicht noch annageln," which may be translated as: "I would just like to pin down a few silly assertions that Fischel made in his Entwicklung des Menschen." In the first two paragraphs of his paper Hochstetter stated (in German, here translated freely): When I decided to write a detailed paper about the development of the morphology of the human face, too [in addition to a paper about morphology of the extremities in human embryos], I was especially moved by the fact that in none of the German manuals and textbooks on embryology known to me is there to be found a presentation of the development of the human face which could be considered - eveJ;l to a limited extent - rich in details, true, sufficiently illustrated, easy to understand by students as well as by scien
1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Relief of the Facial Region Until the Appearance of the Nasal Pit (Stages 12-15).- 4. Formation of the Nasal Chambers and of the Primary Choanae (Stages 16-18).- 5. The Merging of the Outer Relief and the Formation of the Nostrils (Stages 19-23).- 6. The Primary Palate.- 7. Secondary Palate Shelves and Nasal Septum.- 8. Nasolacrimal Furrow.- 9. Frontalization of the Eyes.- 10. Early Development of the External Ear.- 11. Discussion.- 12. Summary.- 13. References.- 14. Subject Index.