Understanding how atomic scale structure, confinement and quantum mechanical effects impact electronic processes within nanostructures and across interfaces. Very thin sheets of a material can exhibit greatly enhanced properties such as increased electrical conductivity as compared with the bulk and are well suited for applications in new electronic devices. Hence, unique assemblies of atoms and molecules are formed under realistic conditions to enable the design and synthesis of materials with prescribed functional properties. For example, the demonstration and feasibility of the reducing graphene oxide (GO) by nuclear radiation in general by radiolysis to be specific. Likewise, for the first time within the global Nano community, several functional nanoscaled oxides are engineered via an original biosynthesis process. This later is based on the usage of natural extracts as effective chelating agent.