This book is intended as a primer on non-associative structures and related structures. It presents new insight into the theory of Jordan algebras. Graduate students may use it as a source of inspiration for their theses, and researchers might find in it some open problems. In modern mathematics, an important notion is that of non-associative structure. This kind of structures is characterized by the fact the product of elements verifies a more general law than the associativity law. In the beginning, mathematics was associative and commutative, then (after the invention of matrices) it became associative and non-commutative, and now (after the invention of non-associative structures) it becomes non-associative and non-commutative.